Helping pupils to program the way programmers program

This brief course describes the general approach to programming taken by Learning Linked.  This approach is based on the combination of the experience of teaching pupils aged 8-16 how to solve problems by programming, to develop the methods which actual programmers use.

The course should be followed before taking on the more detailed courses on programming in specific languages, which follow.


Scratch is a free educational programming language .

Scratch is designed to be fun, educational, and easy to learn. It has the tools for creating interactive stories, games, art, simulations, and more, using block-based programming. Scratch has its own paint editor and sound editor built-in.

Users program in Scratch by dragging blocks from the block palette and attaching them to other blocks like a jigsaw puzzle. Structures of multiple blocks are called scripts. 

Before starting this course, please read the General Introduction to Programming Course.  It is free to access as a guest.  When asked to log in, click on log in as a guest.

The big ideas of Logo are that you write instructions to move a pointer, which can leave a trail, and you can use repeats and procedures.  The instructions are exactly the same sort used  to move a Beebot.  So using Logo for problem solving is great progression from the Beebot and then to the use of Scratch, where the big idea is instructions attached to sprites.


Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the language which web browsers, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Google Chrome, use, to display the web pages you see.  This introduction lets you learn the connection between the commands of the language and what appears on the screen, and then how to add

  • titles and text in different colours
  • a horizontal line
  • a graphic from a website
  • a list
  • a Google map
  • a link to another website.